Writings: some of my writings which can be classified as philosophical divagations:
Books: some books I strongly suggest.
Links: some links on sites I find interesting on: General arguments -  Search engines -  History Texts on-line
Texts: philosophical texts and fragments here in my site.
Thinkers. Here I collect some link and notices on thinkers I appreciate most, or better whom I appreciated and loved writings: Shaykh Muhyiddin Ibn al-'Arabi  -  Augustine of Hippo  -  G. Berkeley  -  R. Descartes  -  Dionysus the Areopagite  -  Erasmus von Rotterdam  -  Abu Nasr al-Farabi  -  Fathers of the Church  -  Gnostics  -  Hebrew Wisdom  -  D. Hume  -  E. Husserl  -  I. Kant  -  S. Kierkegaard  -  K. Marx  -  Neoplatonics  -  B. Pascal  -  Plato/Socrates  -  Presocratics  -  A. Schopenhauer  -  B. Spinoza  -  Voltaire  -  L. Wittgenstein.

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Writings

Hereinafter I list some of my essays on philosophical and/or literary subjects: some of them appeared on fanzines, other on professional magazines, other appear here for the first time.
txt Variazioni su un tema di Borges (1992)
An essay in two parts published on CastelNews, a fanzine from Mathematics students at La Sapienza University. It is a collection of reflections on an essay by Borges (La esfera de Pascal), and on one by Murray Eden (God, Man and Science): I mention here also the proof of God existence as formulated by Kurt Gödel.

txt Gödel was not a machine (2002)
It is a short essay in which I express my personal viewpoints on the vexata quæstio around minds, machines and Gödel theorems, drawing inspiration from my reading of Hofstadter book, which made me violate Wittgenstein wise suggestion (the famous seventh chapter of his Tractatus Logicus-Philosophicus which, according to Russell, deals with mystics):Wovon man nicht sprechen kann, darüber muß man schweigen [On what about one cannot tell, it is better to be silent].

txt Gödel theorems (2002)
Some few remarks around the celebrated logic-mathematical works of Kurt Gœdel: in particular, I expose in it my interpretation of formulas in incomplete theories as synthetical judgements (in the kantian sense of the term) as opposed to analytica judgements, which are formulas belonging in complete theories.

txt Vita da cadavere (2006)
I enjoyed reading Stiff by Mary Roach, and could not resist to write a review of this fascinating book for the philosophical-medical magazine Janus. It has been published in the Autumn 2006 issue.

txt Nero di china (2008)
This is a review for a booklet about death and macabre in the history of comics for Janus. It has been published in the Spring 2009 issue.

txt Gli ultimi giorni di Immanuel Kant (2009)
Just after my father's death I've had the occasion to read the de Quincey essay The last days of Immanuel Kant (1827) and I was impressed by the analogy between my father's desease (a form of the Alzheimer's desease) and Kant's symptoms. So I wrote this paper, which appeared in a abridged form in Janus, Autumn 2009 issue.

txt Umor nero nel calamaio (2009)
This is a review of a book edited by Roberto Gigliccu, La melanconia (2009), which is an anthology of Italian literature about melancholy, and which appeared on the last issue of di Janus.

Books

The following list is just a fragmentary (and continuously growing) collection of books on philosophical subjects I truly found interesting, and which I suggest to read. With the locution "philosophical subjects" I mean not merely metaphysics (!), but in general any reflection about fundamental themes: god, universe, life, man, language, mind, the and so on. Actually these books could be ascribed to the heterogeneous gendre of "treatise", but my attitude toward them, as a reader, is philosophical, and it is the reader who make the book, not vice versa.
Concerning why I publish such a list, explanations are more or less the same I gave about the book's list on literature. Be as it is: here is the list.
AUGUSTINE of Hippo: Confessions; The City of God; The master.
Henri BERGSON: Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience.
BONAVENTURE of Bagnoregio: Itinerary of the Soul to God.
Jared DIAMOND: The Chird Chimpanzee; Guns, Germs, Steel.
René DESCARTES: Metaphysical Meditations
DIONYSIUS the Aeropagyte: Mystical Theology; Letters.
ERASMUS of Rotterdam: Moriae encomium; Adagia; Querela pacis.
al-FARABI: The Virtuous City.
Immanuel KANT: Prolegomena ad ogni futura metafisica che si presenterà come scienza; Critique of Pure Reason.
Soren KIERKEGAARD: Timore e tremore; Enter-Ellen; La malattia mortale.
Karl MARX, Friedrich ENGELS: Manifesto del partito comunista.
Blaise PASCAL: Pensées; Lettere provinciali.
PLATONE: Apology; Timeus; Republic.
PLOTINO: Enneades.
Arthur SCHOPENHAUER: The World as Will and Representation; Parerga and paralipomena.
VOLTAIRE: Zadig; Candide; Dictionnaire philosophique.
Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN: Tractatus logicus-philosophicus.

Links


General links on Philosophy

American Philosophical Association which, as they say, is the main professional organization for philosophers in the United States. Founded in 1900, its mission is to promote the exchange of ideas among philosophers, to encourage creative and scholarly activity in philosophy, to facilitate the professional work and teaching of philosophers, and to represent philosophy as a discipline.
Research Institute for the Humanities of the Chinese University of Hong Kong (maintained by Tze-wan Kwan): a huge site on philosophy, theology and related matters.
Philosophy around the Web is a site with many links and resources.
Enciclopedia Multimediale delle Scienze Filosofiche presso la RAI raccoglie interviste, biografie, interventi ed informazioni legate ai suoi programmi di filosofia in collaborazione con L'Istituto Italiano per gli Studi Filosofici.
Online Papers on Consciousness compiled by David Chalmers.
Garth Kemerling Home Page contains many informations about history, terms and the main western philosophical currents; in particular a list of Major figures in Western philosophy, a discussion on Logic and other historical informations.
Mary Long's Philosophy page.
Répertoire bibliographique de la Philosophie at the Université Catholique de Louvain (mantained by Dominique Debefve).
filosofico.net è interamente dedicato "alla filosofia e ai suoi eroi". Si tratta di un sito italiano di filosofia, un po' disneyano, ma con molti link).
Philosophy and Philosophy of Education brazilian gate to philosophy.
EpistemeLinks has miryad of links and philosophical stuffs, a huge bookstore, galleries of images and resources (news, etc.).
Principia Cybernetica Web has the following, ambitious program: Principia Cybernetica tries to tackle age-old philosophical questions with the help of the most recent cybernetic theories and technologies.
Filosofia Blog è il nuovo sito dedicato al pensiero filosofico. Fondato da quattro laureati in Filosofia all'Università degli Studi di Padova, tratta temi come la storia della filosofia antica moderna e contemporanea, logica, filosofia della scienza e filosofia del linguaggio.

Search engines on Philosophy

Meta-Encyclopedia of Philosophy collects arguments from the main philosophical encyclopedias argomenti scattered on the net.
Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. It is a no-profit association which enlists editors, authors and referees.
Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy a dynamical project from the Metaphysics Research Lab at the Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University.
Erratic Impact, The Philosophy Research Base with many resources.
A Dictionary of Philosophical Terms and Names. It is a synthetic guide to technical terms and outstanding people in the history of philosophy.
Lexikon der Philosophie.
A Guide to Philosophy on the Internet, by Peter Suber, with many links.
Philosophy Links at System Of Life Institute's.

History of Philosophy

Philosophy of History Archive! A Russian site (in English) offering a listing of philosophy of history resources worldwide.
History of Western Philosophy by Garth Kemerling: see also Time Line.
History of Philosophy è un sito con moltissimi link alla storia della filosofia non solo occidentale.
Introduzione alla filosofia di Ernesto Riva: una introduzione alla storia del pensiero filosofico in uno stile da manuale scolastico, sintetica ma efficiente.
Muslim Scientists and Islamic Civilization is another site devoted to the golden age of Islamic science (and in particular to great Muslim thinkers); it is a good site which contains also a lot of interesting informations on middle age Islamic civilization.
Great Voyages in the history of western philosophy from 1492 to 1776.

Texts on-line

See also: Texts on-line on Mathematics, Texts on-line on Literature not to say sections devoted to single philosophers and to their works.
Eserver: Philosophy is a collection of texts and links.
Paideia Project On-Line is a project aimed at the publication on-line of all documents from the World Philosophy Conference held in 1998.
www.sacred-texts.com is an English archive with religious texts, with many (maybe too many) texts on line spanning from religion to superstition.
The Catholic Encyclopedia on line; on the same site you find also texts from the Fathers of the Church and a translation of the Summa Theologica by Saint Thomas.
Proyecto filosofía en español, una vasta collección de textos y crítica que, como dicen ellos mismos, pretende potenciar el desarrollo, la difusión y el conocimiento de la filosofía construida y pensada en la lengua que hablamos cientos de millones de personas. Le invitamos a formar parte y colaborar en una iniciativa que quiere ser tan universal e internacional como lo son sus vehículos principales: la lengua española e internet.
Storia della filosofia medievale II (1995/96) Il materiale qui presentato è stato prodotto dagli studenti che hanno partecipato al lavoro di discussione seminariale del De ente et essentia di Tommaso d'Aquino, tema centrale del corso.
Éditions de l'éclat is an electronic library with philosophical texts, some of which are free.
ditext contains a lot of links and texts on line, among which the Meta-encyclopedy of Philosophy.
McMaster University Archive for the History of Economic Thought contains interesting material about economical thought but also classics of philosophers.

Texts

Hereinafter I leave some philosophical texts, mainly in their original version: they are taken from the Net or scanned from old editions (because of the copyright!). In particular they are not critical editions, indeed they are not editions at all, since I just reproduced these texts verbatim and, because of the incompetence of who writes, with no notes nor comments. Moreover, the texts could not be the standard text as far the modern criticism established it.
Perhaps, I will dare to temp some translation, with the aid of the existing ones, produced by professional scholars, I'll see if time will allows me to do that: for the moment I just put at disposal these "rough texts" which may constitute a useful complement, a mere curiosity or also an help to the reading of those texts in modern translations or paper editions.
txt Augustine of Hippo, Confessiones (400 d.C.)
This text, truly a classic, needs no presentations: it is a self-analysis aimed at trigger deep and beautiful reflections. What Augustine says about time in book XII, for instance, today is well understood, after physicists taught us Big-Bang theory: but Augustine wrote in the late IV century A.D.! Note: This latin version was produced by using the text downloaded by the site by James J. O'Donnell, who recognizes in it the editio minor by Knöll, 1898.

txt George Berkeley, A treatise concerning the principles of human understanding, (1710).

Thinkers

I collect here some link and notices about thinkers I appreciate most, or better whom I appreciated and loved works and books.

IBN 'ARABI
Shaykh Muhyiddin IBN AL-'ARABI [1165-1240]

I have heard about ibn-Arabi after reading a delightful book by Abd el-Kader, namely the excerpts from Kitab al-Mawaqif, translated by Michel Chodkiewicz (Escrits spirituels, Paris, 1984) and, of course, in the classic history of islamic philosophy by Henri Corbin. el-Kader moved me to learn about this great master of Islamic mysticism.

Ibn 'Arabi Society. The Society was founded in 1977 to promote a greater understanding of the work of Ibn 'Arabi and his followers. This international association has its headquarters in Oxford, England, with a branch in the United States.
'Ilm al Yaqin is a site about Islam and Sufism, and in particular on Ibn 'Arabi.
The Islam Website: Islam, Islamic Studies, Arabic, Religion, Resources for Studying Islam, etc. It is a complete site on Islam with an interesting page about Islam vs. terrorism which has to be read.
Al Amir Abd el Kader contains extracts fomr Abd-El-Kader life by Charles-Henry Churchill (1867): introduction, traduction et notes de Michel Habart, and also some Écrits spirituels présentés et traduits de l'arabe par Michel Chodkiewicz from the Kitab Al Mawaqif by Adb el-Kader, a XIX century mystic follower of Ibn 'Arabi's doctrine.
Sufism's Many Paths by Dr. Alan Godlas, University of Georgia.
The Neoplatonist Roots of Sufi Philosophy a paper by Kamuran Godelek.
Anqa publishing sells some books about the Greatest Master.

Saint AUGUSTINE [354-430]
Saint AUGUSTINE [354-430]
[see also Fathers and doctors of the Church]
Augustine of Hippo is the foudner of latin catholicism as we conceive it: his chiefwork, The city of God, is indeed an encyclopedia of catholicism which had, when it was published, normative value. As all Christian authors of his age, Augustine has been constantly involved in polemics (also very hard) against pagans (The city of God is written mainly with to aim), in the debate inside the Church (for instance on the canon) and in the contemplation of the end of the ancient world (he asked to Horosius the compilation of Historiae adversos paganos).
His work as father of the church is out of question, and his work as thinker makes of him the most penetrating philosopher of lating tongue of the late empire.

On my pages:
txt A small biography.
txt Confessiones (e-book, in Latin).
On the WEB:
Augustine on the Net a complete site: a good starting point.
Augustinus-Lexikon home page has several interesting informations.
Bibliotheca Augustana a serious site with many links.
The City of God: Extracts while the complete text is at disposal as HTML at www.ccel.org.
A Treatise on Nature and Grace, Against Pelagius.
A Work on the Proceedings of Pelagius.
On the Christian doctrine.
The Rules of St. Augustine Brothers of the Order of Hermits of Saint Augustine.

George BERKELEY [1685-1753]
George BERKELEY [1685-1753]

Berkeley is understimated in my country: I remember philosophy texts of high school talking briefly about him and his thought, just before Hume, and defining the latter as en empiricist and Berkeley as an idealist, and, with dialectic brutality, coming to Kant viewing his efforts as a synthesis or an overcoming of the doctrine of these two british philosophers. It suffices, instead, to study Berkeley position about the infinitesimals quarrel to understand not only the deepness of his thought, but also its originality: why the doom of the though of a philosopher must always be bound to the subsequent developments in the history of philosophy?

On my pages:
txt A treatise concerning the principles of human understanding
On the WEB:
International Berkeley Society is a good starting point.
David R. Wilkins page on Berkeley (School of Mathematics, Trinity College, Dublin) with several texts.
The Analyst at Melbourne University; it's a deep and classic example of how a good philosopher can be useful to mathematicians.
The Querist should be read by those unaware which think to Berkeley only as a metaphysical philosopher: he also was a mathematician and an economist, at high levels.

René DESCARTES [1596-1650]
René DESCARTES [1596-1650]

Descartes revolutionized both scientific and philosophical thought: as far as science is concerned, he just changed the course of mathematics, by introducing analytic geometry, which not only proved the coherence of the axioms of Euclidean geometry, but which also traced the modern road to geometry. From a philosophical point of view, he started the awakening of reason in the west, after centuries of scholastic daze (it is ironical that scholastic was born just to awake reason...). Only Copernicus, a bit earlier, and Kant, somewhat later, contributed with similar revolutions in the history of western science and thought.

Descartes at MacTutor.
Kemerling pages on Descartes with links and more.
Descartes at Galileo Project (Rice university)
Descartes' books on line Direction of the Mind, Discourse on Method, Meditations on First Philosophy, Articles both in HTML and to be read on-line.
Rules For The Direction of The Mind.
Discorso sul metodo presso LiberLiber.

Dionigi l'areopagita
DIONIGI l'Areopagita

Nessuno sa chi ha scritto sul finire del VI secolo l'opera che la tradizione attribuisce (erroneamente) a quel Dionigi dell'Areopago citato negli Atti degli apostoli (17,34): chiunque fosse (magari si tratta di più di una persona) ha lasciato le più alte pagine della mistica cristiana altomedievale.
Teologia mistica di Dionigi Areopagita con un commento di Uberto Barbini.

ERASMUS from Rotterdam [1469-1536]
ERASMUS from Rotterdam [1469-1536]

Erasmus is commonly considered a philologist, an erudite, etc. Actually, on reading his works according to their content, and not only for their very elegant umanistic latin, one can appreciate their profundity of thought, or at least this is the effect they have over me.
On my pages:
txt A fragment from Querela pacis, written five centuries ago:he addressed to the mighty ones (of his age), but it seems that nothing has changed through the centuries, so that it is still worth to give echo to his lonesome voice. In these fragments from the last part of that little great book the Peace speaks directly to the mighty ones of the earth [Latin/Italian/English].
On the WEB:
Erasmus of Rotterdam Society contains link and resources.
Vita and works at Bibliotheca Augustana (a Latin site) with some links to on-line texts.
Desiderius Erasmus Forum Frigate è un forum dedicato ad Erasmo.
Desiderius Erasmus von Rotterdam.

AL-FARABI
Abu Nasr AL-FARABI [870-945]

I have read just one book (to my own blame) by this great muslim thinker, the translation of his al-Madina al-fadila (The Virtuous City), and I was delighted by this deep and thorough essay: Islamic philosophy is absurdly neglected in our western education, so I have had to discover by myself the flourishing flowers of this majestic garden.
Islamic Philosophy Online is an interesting site with many informations, texts, links, etc. on Islamic philosophy: as they say, This site contains hundreds of full-length books and articles on Islamic philosophy, ranging from the classical texts in the canon of Islamic philosophy to modern works of Muslim philosophy. And they are right!
Al-farabi page with many texts (mainly in Arabic but also in English) both original sources and criticism.

FATHERS OF THE CHURCH [II-VII century]
FATHERS OF THE CHURCH [II-VII century]

Biblical Resources Page contains many biblical resources: several links to texts, versions, exegeses and on Christian religion, Greek and Hebrew tongues, etc...
Bible Gateway biblical concordance in ten languages.
Mark Goodacre's New Testament Gateway is an excellent collection of links around the New Testament.
Excellent Eastern Orthodox Stuff.
Lilith is a site devoted to this she-demon with links on pagan, hebrew and christian traditions.
Dead Sea Scroll Exhibit at UNC.
Patrologia Latina Database is the electronic version of the first edition of Patrologia Latina (1844-1855) by Jacques-Paul Migne, and of the four index books (1862-1865). The Patrologia contains works by the Fathers of the Church spanning from Tertullian (200) until the death of Pope Innocent III (1216); this database contains the complete Patrologia, included the prefatory material, original texts, criticism and indexes. There also included original column numbers by Migne, an essential reference for any scholar; it is available under annual subscription.
Christian Classics Ethereal Library includes several archaic Christian texts with good introductions and historical notices.
The Fathers of the Church is a site maintained by Kevin Knight, which collects a huge set of (old) English translations of the Fathers: there are no comments, but links toward the Catholic Encyclopedia on line.
Hall of Church History.
Guide to Early Church Documents.
On Classical Learning by Origen.
The Tertullian Home Page.
De natura rerum by Isidor from Seville (the tutelary saint of Internet!!!) and great Visigoth thinker.
Resources on the WWW for the study of Philo of Alexandria.
St. Pachomius Library.
The Divine Lithurgy of St.Chrysostomos (Greek Orthodox).
Coptic Orthodox Lithurgy of St.Basil.
Bede Net is a site devoted to Bede and his times (with many resources in Anglo-Saxon culture, e.g. an Old English Parser!).
  • The page Guide to on-line resources in medieval spirituality compiled by Prof. Scott DeGregorio collects many useful links.

  • GNOSTICS [II-IV century]
    GNOSTICS [II-IV century]

    Gnosticism has been one of the most philosophical oriented religious movement (inside Christianity), a phantasmagoric mixture of mystic and metaphysics.
    Beware of sites devoted to Gnosticism, so to avoid ravings and superstitious nonsenses so widely scattered on the Net: the philosophical and theological interest in gnosis is very different from the vain misunderstanding of its form and content.
    Metalogos: Thomas, Philip and Valentine is a site of the Ecumenical Coptic Project (Athens), no-profit e no-sectarian, which contains learned editions of Nag Hammadi Gospels put at disposal of the academic and religious community: a good starting point.
    The Gospel of Thomas Homepage is a huge site devoted mainly to Thomas Gospel, but also with several links and resources on ancient Christian sources and gnostic texts.
    The Gnosis Archive from The Gnostic Society of Los Angeles: as they say: The Gnosis Archive offers a vast collection of primary texts and resources relating to Gnosticism and the Gnostic Tradition, both ancient and modern. Contains several texts, links and informations.
    St.Shenouda, the Archimandrite Coptic Society is a serious religious site of Coptic studies: there's nothing gnostic in it, but if you are interested in gnosticism you should get a look to coptic lessons which are a simple introduction to the Coptic language (Boharic) both in the .doc and in the .html version.

    HEBREW Wisdom
    HEBREW Wisdom

    The classical portal to religious Hebrew thought is Scholem's book The Great Currents of Hebrew Mysticism: Scholem's scholarly books aside, I have been delighted by The Tales of Chassidim collected by Martin Buber. In any case, it is not possible to ignore Hebrew thought, whose origins and foundations are in the Bible itself, at least for people whose cultural horizon is the west, being them Hebrews, Christians, Muslims, Atheists, etc.
    Here I collect some material and a warning: mind to nazi and racist sites in which one often is catched on the Net when looking for informationa about Hebrew culture: for example, a simple saerch for the word Talmud leads unbelievably to hateful groups of anti-semitics...
    torah.it è un ottimo portale di religione e cultura ebraica in italiano con molti link a testi, tradizioni, musica ed altro.
    Chavruta è una yeshiva on-line per italiani dalla scuola talmudica italiana.
    A talmudic site at www.sacred-texts.com: Rodkinsons' ten-book edition, the only extensive one currently in the public domain, contains complete translations of the 'Festivals' and 'Jurisprudence' sections of the Talmud. Rodkinson only finished about a third of the Talmud. All ten volumes were prepared at Sacred-texts and are available here in their entirety.
    Jüdischen Leben, a site on Hebrew culture, in German, which contains a lot of informations about talmudic traditions.
    www.e-daf.com contains the original Hebrew texts: one can also listen to them!
    Nishmat a woman's learning community infused with Torah values, which put emphasis on open inquiry and vigorous textual study. They offer a Torah course on line.
    www.shemayisrael.co.il is a site devoted to teaching the Hebrew tongue.
    Chabad-Lubavitch is a philosophy, a movement, and an organization. It is considered to be the most dynamic force in Jewish life today. Most notably the section Kabbalah & Chassidism.
    FAQ on Hasidism (Chassidism) by Rabbi Yonassan Gershom.
    Torah Cyberspace Center reaching thousands each week with our Jewish educational material.
    Navigating the Bible - a site on the Hebrew Bible, in English, Spanish and Russian.
    La Cabalà è un sito in italiano dedicato al pensiero mistico ebraico; emanazione della scuola "La Sapienza della Verità" - Chokhmat ha-Emet.
    A Page from the Babylonian Talmud on a Jewish Ring page.
    The vulgata latina at Latin Library.

    David HUME [1711-1776]
    David HUME [1711-1776]

    To my regret, I did not find much material on the thinker who awakened Kant from his dogmatic sleep... Unjustly he is often considered as a mere skeptic or "empiricist", while actually he was a great and gracious collector of philosophical perplexities, very courageous and not trivial for that period.
    Hume Page at McMaster, with many links and writings of the philosopher.

    Edmund HUSSERL [1859-1938]
    Edmund HUSSERL [1859-1938]

    The Husserl Page maintained by Bob Sandmeyer: an excellent starting point.
    The Husserl dictionary by Peter Batke, Princeton University: part of the Philology and Philosophy Project.
    GTH Glossary-guide for Translating Husserl at the Instituto de Investigaciones Filosófica dell'Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.

    Immanuel KANT [1724-1804]
    Immanuel KANT [1724-1804]

    I become interested in Philosophy just after meeting Kant's thought, which made me want to read his original works: I have had the lucky to start with the classic synoptic Italian translation of the Kritik der reinen Vernunft by Giorgio Colli, a precious editorial project: I wonder why it is still floating around the older and worse version of Gentile-Lombardo Radice...

    On my site:
    txt A proposito degli ultimi giorni di Immanuel Kant, a short essay (in Italian) published on Janus I wrote dwelling upon the celebrated essay of Thomas de Quincey and on an account by Christoph Wasianski, a late Kant pupil.
    On the WEB WEB:
    I published (in italian) a short essay about Immanuel Kant's last days dwelling upon the celebrated Thomas de Quincey's essay and on an account by Christoph Wasianski, a late Kant pupil.
    A good site to start can be Kant on the Web by Steve Palmquist.
    Also an introductory site is Garth Kemerling Home page with a short bibliography and several links to works and criticism.
    Immanuel Kant Information Online at Philipps-Universität, Marburg, with important resources.
    The classical English translation of the Critique of Pure reason by Kemp Smith is at http://humanum.arts.cuhk.edu.hk. It is the most famous translation, for instance Zeko Torbov wrote about it: "Die hervorragenden Übersetzungen von Kemp Smith und Colli haben ausserdem an einigen Stellen der Sinn und die Bedeutung von Varianten" (thus "the best translations, by Kemp Smith and [Giorgio] Colli, have, at certain points, the meaning and the value of variants").
    Vida de Kant de Kuno Fischer, desde Revista Contemporánea, Madrid, 15 de diciembre de 1875.
    Immanuel Kant in Italia presso l'Università di Milano: un sito serio, ben fatto ed interessante; si presentano così: Progetto nato nel luglio del 1997 al Dipartimento di Filosofia dell'Università degli Studi di Milano Intento principale del progetto, non si rivolge solo alla cerchia degli specialisti e degli studiosi, ma intende coinvolgere un pubblico più vasto, e raccogliere dati ed informazioni storico-filologiche relative alle fonti italiane della filosofia kantiana ed alla presenza del filosofo di Königsberg nella cultura italiana.
    Richard Lee's collection of links on Kant.
    Robert Greenberg on Kant's Categories.
    Immanuel Kant links.

    Soren KIERKEGAARD [1813-1855]
    Søren KIERKEGAARD [1813-1855]

    Web Site On Kierkegaard by D. Anthony Storm: excellent, a good starting point.
    International Kierkegaard Information hosted by ITS at University of Tasmania, Australia.
    The Howard V. Hong and Edna H. Hong Kierkegaard Library.
    Det Norske Søren Kierkegaard Selskap.

    Karl MARX [1818-1883]
    Karl MARX [1818-1883]

    It is more and more difficult to find Marx works on the Net, and often one falls into sites from fanatic extremists. Credits to Jen Warner for pointing me to a couple of interesting links!
    The Marx-Engels WWW Archive is just what the term suggest: an archive on Marxism, with texts in twelve tongues, and from different authors (also Bordiga, Gramsci, and Labriola, the latter not in Italian...).
    The Comprehensive Marx / Engels Resource a page with many links about biographical resources, philosphical influence, criticisms, texts.
    Karl Marx & Friedrich Engels a short intro to M&E ideas.
    Marx and Engels' Writings on e-server.

    NEOPLATONICS [II-IV century]
    NEOPLATONICS [II-IV century]

    Neoplatonism on on-line encyclopedy infoplease contains good informations, even if it is short.
    Plotinus, The Six Enneads, translated by Stephen Mackenna and B. S. Page.
    Porphyry, Against the Christians.
    Links to some of Porphyry e-texts at Alexandria on the Web by David Fideler.
    Neoplatonismo e neoaristotelismo Diego Fusaro.
    O Neoplatonismo in a brief introduction in Portuguese.

    Blaise PASCAL [1623-1662]
    Blaise PASCAL [1623-1662]

    Blaise Pascal a biography, with his Pensées and the Provincial letters.
    Blaise Pascal a biographic site.
    Existentialism and Blaise Pascal by K.Eiermann is a page with several links and informations.

    PLATO [428-348 b.C.]
    PLATO [428-348 b.C.]

    Plato and its dialogues includes a map of the dialogs, and bio-bibliographical informations.
    The Last Days Of Socrates, as they say: This site is designed to help first year philosophy students read the Euthyphro, Apology, Crito, and the death scene from the Phaedo. Includes material from Eutiphro, Apology, Crito, Fedo [also audio] and even some Spanish translations.
    Complete Works of Plato from Tech Classics Archive.
    Plato in Greek and English translation at Perseus Project
    Obras completas de Platón, 11 vols., puestas en castellano por Patricio de Azcárate, Madrid 1871-1872, on line!
    Socrates: Philosophy's martyr with several links on Socrates.

    PHYTAGORAS
    PRESOCRATICS

    Under the term "presocratic philosophers" founders of philosophy as we intend it are understood: indeed the word "philosophy" just turns out from that world. But in some sense one should call them "scientists", since their main feature was to start thinking in a rational way to questions that were before answered by religion or myth: their attitude toward the world was, for that epoch, scientist, or maybe rationalist. This is, of course, a rough description: a different and simpler way to define presocratics would be to term them as the greek scholars spanning from Thales to Empedocles...

    Presocratic Fragments and Testimonials from Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
    Greek Philosophy: Pre-Socratic Philosophy by Richard Hooker is a short introduction.
    Los filósofos presocráticos de José Manuel Fernández Cepedal, en español, con informacciones y textos.
    Presocratic Philosophers provided also in Greek (Proswkratikoi Filosofoi).
    Pythagoras of Samos at MacTutor.

    Arthur SCHOPENHAUER [1788-1861]
    Arthur SCHOPENHAUER [1788-1861]

    Schopenhauer Source allows to read works and manuscripts by Schopenhauer on line.
    Arthur Schopenhauer Homepage from tyhe Japan Schopenhauer Society.
    Arthur Schopenhauer Web en castillano.
    Schopenhauer-Gesellschaft im Deutsch.
    Arthur Schopenhauer at Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.

    Baruch SPINOZA [1632-1677]
    Baruch SPINOZA [1632-1677]

    Studia Spinoziana contains the first two halves of the Ethics and other on line texts, documents and links on Spinoza and the XVII-XVIII centuries philosophy: a good starting point to explore Spinoza and his age.
    Joseph B. Yesselman's Home Page Dedicated to Spinoza's Insights with links and texts by Spinoza.
    SPINOZA A cura di Diego Fusaro.
    Ethics Translated from the Latin by R.H.M. Elwes (1883).
    Foglio Spinoziano è una rivista on-line che contiene molto materiale su Spinoza.

    VOLTAIRE (Francois Marie Arouet) [1694-1778]
    VOLTAIRE (Francois Marie Arouet) [1694-1778]

    In my site:
    img Torture entry in his Dictionnaire philosophique (1764).
    On the WEB:
    Voltaire Foundation a site with texts, images and links.
    Oeuvres complètes de Voltaire is the electronic version of the Louis Moland edition (Garnier, Paris 1870-1880). They sell a CD-ROM and put at disposal on line a .HTML and .doc version.
    ABU - Auteur Voltaire contains (and has a search engine for textual researches): L'homme aux quarante écus; Lettres philosophiques; Micromégas; Le monde comme il va; La Pucelle d'Orléans.
    Diccionario filosófico en castillano, on line.

    Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN [1889-1951]
    Ludwig WITTGENSTEIN [1889-1951]

    The Ludwig Wittgenstein Page.
    Deutsche Ludwig Wittgenstein Gesellschaft e.V. (DLWG).
    Wittgenstein WWW Message Center.
    Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus at Gutenberg.
    Wittgenstein's Lectures on Philosophy.